7 P’s of the Marketing Mix: A Detailed Guide with 7 Real-world Examples


Despite the ever-changing nature of business landscapes, the marketing mix continues to serve as a reliable roadmap for companies aiming to effectively connect with their target market. The 7 P’s of the marketing mix, encompassing Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process, and Physical evidence, provide a strategic framework that enables businesses to comprehend their market while efficiently positioning their products or services.

Digging Deeper into the 7 P’s of Marketing

1. Product

The product, whether tangible or intangible, forms the core of any business offering. It is designed to fulfill particular needs or wants of customers. It is essential for businesses to pay attention to aspects like features, quality, design, branding, and packaging of their product to make it appealing to prospective customers.

Illustration: Apple Inc. is renowned for its focus on innovation, superior design, and advanced features in their products. Devices like the iPhone or MacBook are not just electronics; they’re status symbols due to their unique branding.

2. Price

The price signifies what a customer pays for a product or service. Various factors such as production cost, competition, target audience, and perceived value must be considered by businesses when determining prices.

Illustration: Starbucks sets its prices higher than many competitors. This premium pricing strategy mirrors the high-quality ingredients used and the exclusive customer experience they offer.

3. Place

The place denotes where and how the product or service is made available to the customer. It encompasses distribution channels, market coverage, physical retail outlets, and online sales platforms.

Illustration: Amazon has transformed retail with its online marketplace, offering customers a broad array of products delivered directly to their doorstep.

4. Promotion

The term Promotion includes all activities employed to communicate with customers about the product or service. It comprises advertising, sales promotions, public relations, and social media marketing strategies.

Illustration: Coca-Cola employs a blend of traditional advertising (like TV commercials), digital marketing (via social media campaigns), and public relations (such as sponsoring events like the FIFA World Cup) to promote its brand worldwide.

5. People

The people involved in delivering the product or service significantly influence customer perceptions. This includes employees, sales personnel, customer service representatives, and even the customers themselves.

Illustration: Southwest Airlines places considerable emphasis on recruiting friendly and customer-centric staff. The positive demeanor of their employees enhances the overall customer experience and boosts the brand’s reputation.

6. Process

The processes involved in delivering a product or service can significantly impact customer satisfaction. These processes can range from order processing, service delivery, customer service to complaint resolution procedures.

Illustration: Domino’s Pizza has digitized its ordering and delivery process, allowing customers to track their pizza from the kitchen to their doorstep.

7. Physical Evidence

Physical evidence refers to tangible elements that customers encounter during their interaction with a business. This could include the physical premises, website design, brochures, logos, or even uniforms of employees.

Illustration: McDonald’s golden arches logo and red-and-yellow color scheme serve as recognizable elements that provide physical evidence of the brand.

7 P's of the marketing mix


Comprehending and effectively applying the 7 P’s of the marketing mix is vital for any business looking to effectively engage with its target audience. A thorough examination of each ‘P’ can help businesses develop a comprehensive marketing strategy that resonates with their customers and distinguishes them in a competitive marketplace.

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